Download Theoretical Physics and Philosophical Problems: Selected by Brian McGuinness, Ludwig Boltzmann PDF

By Brian McGuinness, Ludwig Boltzmann

The paintings of Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) comprises varieties of writings: within the first a part of his lively lifestyles he dedicated himself solely to difficulties of physics, whereas within the moment half he attempted to discover a philosoph­ical historical past for his actions in and round the average sciences.

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Senior Physics 1

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Extra info for Theoretical Physics and Philosophical Problems: Selected Writings (Vienna Circle Collection, Volume 5)

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However, since this does not seem to lead to our goal, let us follow the inverse path of natural science. We frame the hypothesis that complexes of atoms had developed that were able to multiply by forming similar ones round them. Of the larger masses so arising the most viable were those that could multiply by division, and those that had a tendency to move towards places where favourable conditions for life prevailed. This was greatly furthered by the receptivity for external impressions, chemical constitution and the motion of the circumambient medium, light and shade and so on.

Let me merely make a brief comment on the first calculation of the frictional constant by Maxwell. From his theory he derives the result that for a whole class of phenomena the resistance to a body moving in a gas does not depend on the density of the gas. These phenomena are marked by the fact that for them the mass of gas plays no part in comparison with that of the moving bodies. All previous observations pointed against it, resistance had always been found to be much greater in dense air than in thin.

That is why in gases too a mixture will always occur, although unaccompanied by any noticeable production of heat. If the mixture of liquids produces heat, they will mix the more readily of therr selves, but if cooling arises, the greater probability of the mixed state may still be decisive. Only when cohesive forces are significantly preponderant will the tendency towards mixture be overcome. Much the same occurs in the operation of so-called chemical affinities. It is a fact that when two like or unlike atoms combine in certain ways, very considerable amounts of energy are set free.

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