By W. Ronald Fawcett
Книга beverages, options, and Interfaces: From Classical Macroscopic... beverages, ideas, and Interfaces: From Classical Macroscopic Descriptions to fashionable Microscopic DetailsКниги Химия Автор: W. Ronald Fawcett Год издания: 2004 Формат: pdf Издат.:Oxford collage Press Страниц: 638 Размер: 5,2 ISBN: 0195094328 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Fifty years in the past answer chemistry occupied an enormous fraction of actual chemistry textbooks, and dealt more often than not with classical thermodynamics, section equilibria, and non-equilibrium phenomena, in particular these relating to electrochemistry. a lot has occurred within the intervening interval, with great advances in concept and the advance of significant new experimental innovations. This publication brings the reader during the advancements from classical macroscopic descriptions to extra sleek microscopic information.
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Extra info for Liquids, Solutions, and Interfaces: From Classical Macroscopic..
Wilson, G. M. J. Am. Chem. , 1964, 86, 127. 8. ; Prausnitz, J. M. AIChE J. 1968, 14, 135. 9. ; Mathot, V. The Molecular Theory of Solutions; North Holland: Amsterdam, 1957. 10. Marcus, Y. Introduction to Liquid State Chemistry; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1977. Problems 1. 204 Â 10À2 c where r is the density in g mLÀ1 and c, the concentration of LiC1O4 in M. 5 M. 2. The following density data are reported for the carbon tetrachloride–acetonitrile system at 25 C. 0. Use the appropriate numerical interpolation and diﬀerentiation techniques (see appendix C).
This change is another reﬂection of the fact that the energy due to the intermolecular forces between the components changes with solution composition. In summary, there are three important characteristics of ideal solutions that one should remember in assessing the properties of any non-ideal system: (i) the vapor pressure of each component is proportional to its mole fraction in solution over the whole composition range (Raoult’s law); (ii) the enthalpy of mixing is zero; (iii) the volume change associated with mixing is zero.
Thus, for component A in a solution containing two components, Aliquid Ð Avapor ð1:6:1Þ The thermodynamic condition for equilibrium is that the chemical potential of A in the liquid phase be equal to that of A in the vapor, that is, msA ¼ mvA ð1:6:2Þ where msA is the chemical potential of A in the liquid solution, and mvA , that for A in the vapor phase. If one now assumes that the vapor phase behaves ideally, one may write mvA ¼ mv; A þ RT ln PA ð1:63Þ where mv; A is the standard chemical potential of A in the vapor phase measured when the partial pressure of A is 1 bar, and PA , the actual partial pressure of A.