By Angel Smith
For years Spain used to be below a dictatorship till democracy used to be recovered in 1978 below the shape of a constitutional monarchy. In 1986 it joined the eu Union and has skilled an fiscal and cultural renaissance. this day, Spain has the 7th greatest economic climate within the world.The moment version of the historic Dictionary of Spain is an unrivalled reference consultant to Spanish historical past and politics from the center a while to the current. With its chronology, introductory essay, and over 700 dictionary entries on significant Spanish corporations, together with political events, alternate unions, and nation our bodies; a few of the areas and languages which contain Spain, together with Catalonia and the Basque state; and significant figures in Spanish tradition and the humanities, the old Dictionary of Spain permits readers to simply persist with the foremost adjustments Spain has gone through.
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Вторая книга также посвящена «военной машине» - генеральному штабу, с помощью которого Наполеон и его незаменимый начальник штаба Маршал Бертье командовал и управлял огромной армией.
For years Spain used to be below a dictatorship until eventually democracy was once recovered in 1978 lower than the shape of a constitutional monarchy. In 1986 it joined the ecu Union and has skilled an fiscal and cultural renaissance. this day, Spain has the 7th greatest economic system on the planet. the second one variation of the old Dictionary of Spain is an unrivalled reference advisor to Spanish historical past and politics from the center a while to the current.
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Additional info for Historical Dictionary of Spain (Historical Dictionaries of Europe)
In northern Spain, where the Church was at the center of community life and the structure of landholding more dispersed, this peasant anger bolstered support for Carlism. In the south, where landownership was more concentrated, and where, therefore, the landless and land-hungry peasantry could more clearly identify a bourgeois or noble enemy, the peasantry gravitated toward republicanism, anarchism, and socialism. The urban and rural malcontents had to resort to violence in order to try and dislodge the conservative liberals from power.
Yet by the late 1820s the king had come to realize that his attempt to maintain the structures of the old order was doomed to failure. Faced with the American colonial rebellion, the government had accumulated an enormous public debt, and under the structures of the old regime there was no chance of raising sufficient revenues to balance the books. Hence, from the late 1820s, the king began to reach out to more conservative liberals. These liberals were by no means avid revolutionaries. They were men of substantial wealth and social position who wished, if possible, to reach a political and ideological compromise with the absolutists in order to carry out a bloodless, controlled transition to a liberal regime.
During this time, Socialists, republicans, and Catalan nationalists would 20 • INTRODUCTION attempt to forge a new decentralized state and a more egalitarian social order. Key elements of the reform process were an autonomy statute for Catalonia (which was extended to the Basque Country during the civil war), an agrarian reform law to redistribute latifundista estates to the peasantry, a military reform (the goal of which was to depoliticize the army), Church reform aimed at separating Church and state and drastically reducing the Church’s role in Spanish life, and equal legal status for women.