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By S. J. B. Reed

Initially released in 2005, this e-book covers the heavily comparable suggestions of electron microprobe research (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in particular from a geological standpoint. themes mentioned contain: ideas of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, basic ideas of SEM photograph formation, creation of X-ray 'maps' exhibiting elemental distributions, methods for qualitative and quantitative X-ray research (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), using either 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs geared up with X-ray spectrometers, and sensible concerns akin to pattern instruction and therapy of effects. all through, there's an emphasis on geological facets no longer pointed out in comparable books geared toward a extra common readership. The publication avoids pointless technical element with the intention to be simply available, and types a entire textual content on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, in addition to these operating in business laboratories.

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Extra info for Electron microprobe analysis and scanning electron microscopy in geology

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Fig. 12. A reflecting microscope mounted coaxially with the electron beam, as fitted to electron microprobe instruments. 10 Vacuum systems Electron beam instruments must be evacuated sufficiently well to avoid damage to the electron source and high-voltage breakdown in the gun, as well as allowing electrons to reach the specimen without being scattered. 1). A simple vacuum system employing a mechanical rotary pump and an oil diffusion pump is shown schematically in Fig. 13. To pump the chamber from atmospheric pressure, V2 is opened (with V1 and V3 closed).

A typical EMP specimen holder is illustrated in Fig. 11. Several specimens and standards may be mounted together, with their front surfaces lying in a common plane defined by a ledge at the front of the holder (described as ‘front referencing’, as distinct from ‘back referencing’ of SEM specimens mounted as described above). The holder is attached to a mechanism that provides orthogonal movements, which in modern instruments are computer-controlled. The minimum step size is typically 1 mm or less, and ‘micro-stepping’ is sometimes available to give ultra-fine control of position.

2) are relatively non-directional but, with an annular detector divided into sectors, topographic contrast can be emphasised and compositional contrast suppressed by using the difference in the signals from opposite sectors (Figs. 13). Even in ‘compositional’ mode there is a topographic effect owing to variations in surface angle, hence these two effects are combined in cases such as that illustrated in Fig. 14. 46 Scanning electron microscopy (a) (b) Fig. 6. Secondary-electron images of Globigerina: (a) 200Â; and (b) 2000Â.

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