By Jean-Pierre Laude
Modern source provide you with complete, brand new insurance of the foundations, applied sciences, criteria and purposes of Dense Wavelength department Multiplexing (DWDM).
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Additional resources for DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications
3 Concave Grating Study CGs are generally used in reflection; therefore, their blaze angles are calculated like those of plane reflexion gratings. 20). 20 Concave grating. constant. However, on ruled or holographic gratings, a profile variation with surface location can be obtained by variable incidence ion etching. On classically ruled gratings, one can rule three or four zones with a constant but optimized angle, and with a corresponding loss of resolution, in cases in which the efficiency variation would be too large from the center to the edge.
Following production of the holographic master, which has pseudosinusoidal groove profiles, the grating is then used as a mask subjected to an argon laser beam to remove surface atoms until the groove structure presented by the surface hologram is brought into the substrate itself. To shape the grooves, the angle of incidence of the ions to the substrate can be adjusted to produce triangular blazed-grating profiles. High efficiencies have been achieved with concave aberration-corrected holographic gratings .
However, this reduces the laser intensity to amplified spontaneous emission ratio. A cylindrical unstable resonator gives expansion of the beam along an axis parallel to the fiber with laser gain losses 28 DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications reduced by several orders of magnitude when compared with a spherical unstable resonator giving an equivalent magnification. A spatial coherence larger than 1mm was obtained . Today, as well, CW frequency-doubled ion lasers giving 500-mW CW at 244 nm are available (as claimed by the Coherent Laser Group).