By Stuart Reid
Having already allied together with his father, the ScotsвЂ™ popularity of Charles II as king in 1649 prompted deep suspicion in England. In July 1650, Oliver Cromwell led a robust strength around the Scottish border to take away the matter. for 6 weeks Cromwell waged a difficult crusade opposed to a Scots enemy that refused to fulfill him in conflict. through the start of September CromwellвЂ™s military, poorly provided, exhausted and ravaged via illness, was once it sounds as if trapped at Dunbar by means of a robust Scots military. On three September he received his maximum army victory simply outdoor the city, yet during this ebook Stuart Reid means that his triumph could in truth have all started as a breakout try out.
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Extra info for Dunbar 1650: Cromwell's most famous victory
64 See below, chapter 6. : Princeton University Press, 1994), chap. : Yale University Press, 2006), pp. 37–38, 50–52; and see below, chapter 5. 66 Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990). 62 The Varieties of the Millennial Experience ■ 23 with them massive public campaigns of visual art aimed at establishing the icon of the ruler in the social imagination. 67 Indeed, this signiﬁcant exception aside, one might single out as the distinguishing feature of hierarchical millennialism, the “feedback” between the megalomanic sense of a messianic king—one who brings salvation to his people and the world—and the iconic program of monotheism, in which he sees his own divine image reﬂected.
Apocalyptic time is always in the oﬃng, although disasters certainly encourage it. But rarely do they give birth to millennial movements, still more rarely do those movements make a lasting mark on the public consciousness, and still more rarely do millennial movements, like most of those under study in this volume, take power. Moreover, no movement that takes power can sustain the hallucination that the new world is indeed messianic for more than a short while. Most burn out quickly, in months or years; in rare cases, in a decade or two.
25 These compromises demanded by the saeculum are at once reassuring and depressing. 26 No matter how convinced we feel that something is “true”—scientiﬁcally, religiously—we must maintain suﬃcient exegetical and epistemological modesty to allow the possibility that we are wrong. Not surprisingly, some of the most diﬃcult conceptual reorientations come from evolutionary thinkers who challenge any notion of some “overarching director” to our existence. 28 Just as there is a virus that reproduces best in a cow’s stomach but keeps getting excreted, and so has evolved to infect ants with the irresistible urge to climb to the top of the grass blades so that cows can eat them, just so the apocalyptic meme seizes 24 See the rich analysis of Arlene Saxonhouse, Free Speech and Democracy in Ancient Athens (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).