By Arieh Singer, Emilio Galan
The purpose of this comprehenvise booklet is to present the most important effects accomplished within the examine of the clay minerals palygorskite and sepiolite. Palygorskite and sepiolite have came across to be worthy in a massive number of business and scientific purposes. therefore, learn on those clays has been intensified over the past twenty years, and important advances of their characterization were made. The publication includes contributions from special scientists within the field.Comprehensive therapy of palygorskite and sepioliteCutting-edge developments in commercial minerals and applicationsWritten by means of distinctive scientists within the box
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Extra resources for Developments in Palygorskite-Sepiolite Research
Thickness (A˚) b/2 (A˚)c Average b 1. 085 2. 925 Structures/Microtextures of Palygorskite-Sepiolite Group Species 1 Species Chapter TABLE 2 Powder (Rietveld) Refinements and Derived Structural Parameters. —Cont’d 10 Species Average bond distances (A˚) coctahedron ( ) Oct. thickness (A˚) t ( ) Tet. thickness (A˚) b/2 (A˚)c Average b 3. 151 4. 311 6. 116 7. 921 a Constraints/procedures used during refinement: 1 and 2, TÀ ÀO bonds, “soft” constraints, but not fully removed at end of refinement; 3 and 6, soft constraints (¼ constraints removed at end of refinement) on TÀÀO and MÀÀO bonds, refinement matrix uncoupled to lower correlations, hard constraints on thermal (displacement) parameters; 4, soft constraints on TÀÀO, MÀ ÀO bonds and angles, refinement matrix uncoupled to lower correlations; 5 and 7, constraints, if any, not given.
Bailey (1980) described phyllosilicate structures as being composed of semi-elastic sheets. In addition to tetrahedral rotation, tetrahedral sheets further adjust their lateral dimensions either by thickening or by thinning. 47 (thinning) increases the lateral dimension. 73 ) which is defined as the angle between the vertical (¼ octahedral thickness) and the octahedral body diagonal. Thus, cos c is calculated from (octahedral thickness)/[2(MÀÀO, OH)], where MÀÀO,OH is the average value of the bond distance for the octahedral site.
Of particular interest is that the octahedral strips are terminated by OH and OH2 for anion completion of the octahedra at the polysome-channel interface. These terminations are consistent with an aqueous environment with a high aOH. In contrast, trioctahedral smectite, either stevensite (Mg) or saponite (Al), forms also in aqueous environments at conditions similar to but not necessarily identical to palygorskite and sepiolite (Table 4, also see below). Clearly, the formation of smectite requires a high value of aOH also.