By Janus Moller Jensen
This ground-breaking research of the position of crusading in late-medieval and early smooth Denmark argues that crusading had a big influence on political and spiritual existence in Scandinavia throughout the center a long time, which persisted lengthy after the Reformation ostensibly must have positioned an finish to its viability inside of Protestant Denmark.
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Additional resources for Denmark and the Crusades, 1400-1650 (The Northern World)
J. M. Jensen 2003b, pp. 121–22. 54 J. M. Jensen 2003b. 55 Housley 1992, p. 2. The pluralist approach was Àrst introduced by Jonathan Riley-Smith in 1977 in a small book that has revolutionized crusade studies entitled 53 introduction 15 From the pluralist perspective, the history of the crusades came to an end with the Reformation in the Protestant countries as argued for instance by Kurt Villads Jensen. 56 It has, of course, long been realized that the crusades did not come to an end with the fall of Acre in 1291,57 but that this can be stated with certainty is mainly due to the work of Kenneth M.
427), at p. 284, where the crusades against the Hussites are called “reyse” against the “kettere” under “dem teken des hilgen krutzes”. 76 HSH, 18:58, 42: “thet rode kors, oc thet afÁat aff synd oc pina”. 20 introduction was, of course, only the pope who had the power to grant a plenary crusade indulgence, but that does not mean that the pope had to be the instigator of an expedition in order to label it a crusade. Many crusade bulls were issued on application—also from Scandinavia. The pluralist deÀnition is thus useful for the late medieval period, given its emphasis on the pope and the indulgence, but the example of the 1495–97 crusade warns us as historians to demand all elements of the pluralist deÀnition to be present in order to be able to speak of a crusade.
In the twelfth century, the most common terms were expeditio, iter, or peregrinatio. The participants often referred to themselves as cruce signati or peregrini, but the term cruce signati only became a technical term in canon law towards the end of the 12th century despite being used from the First Crusade to describe crusaders. 70 In the Àfteenth and sixteenth centuries, the term cruciata is often used for instance in the papal bulls, but not exclusively. The crusade was 68 Tyerman 1999. Cf. Pohlig 2002.