The essays during this quantity have been awarded at a convention honoring John V. Fleming at Princeton collage on April 21-22, 2004. the purpose of the convention was once to revisit Fleming's 1977 e-book, An advent to the Franciscan Literature of the center a while, from a few varied views, together with social, non secular and literary background, in addition to artwork, exegesis, political notion and the background of schooling. A well-known, yet now not unique, topic of the contributions is the excellence among "defenders" and "critics" of medieval Franciscanism. contemporary scholarship has proven that the dividing line among medieval defenders and critics of Franciscan existence used to be no longer as sharp or as transparent as had as soon as been notion. This, extra nuanced method of medieval Franciscanism is a mirrored image of the various scholarly advancements that experience happened due to the fact - and due to - Fleming's quantity. the current paintings deals a variety of present ways to the query.
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Extra resources for Defenders and Critics of Franciscan Life: Essays in Honor of John V. Fleming (The Medieval Franciscans, Volume 6)
And when he took the portions out of the hands of the priests, he himself stood by the altar. And about him was the ring of his brothers (corona fratrum) . . they stood round about him: all the sons of Aaron in their glory. And the oblation of the Lord was in their hands, before all the congregation of Israel; [. ] Then the sons of Aaron shouted; they sounded with beaten trumpets and made a great noise to be heard for a remembrance before God. Then all the people together made haste and fell down to the earth upon their faces, to adore the Lord their God and to pray to the Almighty God, the Most High.
22 michael f. 27 However, it was the second figure, that of Aaron, which surprisingly played the greater role in the earliest Franciscan texts. The first such use of the figure of Aaron appears in the Encyclical Letter of Elias. Near the end of the letter, before the prescription to offer suffrages for the deceased founder, the author returns to the theme of mourning with which he had begun the letter. ”28 Hence, up to this point, the two Old Testament figures had been paired as images of grief.
23 The Quaracchi editors tell us that the first reference in this passage— egrediebatur et ingrediebatur (“he went out and came back in”)—is a quote from 1 Kings 18:16. 37 I am not convinced that this is the proper reference or, perhaps better, the only allusion intended by the use of these words. For the very next phrase—tamquam Aaron—belies this interpretation. One would have to believe that Elias would first have been evoking David but then attributing the action of David to Aaron. There is indeed a much simpler reading of the images: the action of “going in and coming out” actually refers, quite coherently, to the activity of Aaron who, as high priest, designated as such by Moses to minister in the Tent, is the one who would “go in and come out” again from the Holy of Holies—the innermost sanctuary of the pre-exilic Ark of the Covenant.