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I n this manner an extensive emigration of Jacobite Syrians to these regions took place. By the eleventh century they seem to have come in considerable numbers and possessed bishoprics in a large number of the eastern and southeastern towns: Zapetra, Tell Patriq, Simnadu, Saroug, Mardin, Gcrmaniceia (Marash), Laqabin, Hisn Mansur, Goubbos, Gaihan-Barid, Callisura, Mayefarrilcin, Arabissus, Melitene, Anazarba, Tarsus, Amid, Edessa, Kaisum, Nisibis, Tell Arsanias, Claudia, Hisn Ziad, Caesareia (at least by the twelfth century if not earlier), Samosata, and Gargar.

168, 175. Matthew of Edessa, p. 78. ”’ 54 I EVE OF THE TURKISH CONQUEST Finally in 1064 Gagik-Abas of Kars received lands in Tzamandus, Larissa, Amaseia, and C ~ r n a n a Though . ~ ~ ~ large-scale emigrations are specifically mentioned in only two instances, it must be assumed that all these princes and nobles were accompanied by considerable numbers of followers. ”28o I Religion 1 As important as the ethnic configuration of eleventh-century Anatolia and, in a sense, more dificult to reconstruct, is the religious and sectarian picture of the peninsula.

In thc south, Mt. Galesium, near Ephesus, and Latmus, i n the vicinity of Miletus, were the scenes ofvigorous monastic life. I n the district of Iconium, on the present day Kara Da& monastic communities thrived down to the Seljuk invasions. 213 T h e bishopric of Hagios Procopius (Urgiip) was the centcr of the famous troglodyte monasteries, while at Trebizond and the environs were located the famous monasteries of St. Eugenius, Vazelon, and Sumela. 214 Ethizograjlly Perhaps the most interesting, and certainly the most perplexing problems facing the historian of Byzantine Anatolia are those that have to do with the languages, religions, and ethnic groups of the peninsula at various times.

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