By Martha Carswell Pennington, Vance Stevens
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Extra info for Computers in applied linguistics: an international perspective
Further evidence that the strategies students employ for solving puzzles may not involve strategies for language learning can be gleaned from observing Page 21 students solving cryptograms. Cryptograms are puzzles in which each unique letter in a block of text has been changed to some other unique letter selected at random; for example, all the occurrences of a become c, all occurrences of b become p, and so on throughout the block of text. Interestingly, students solving cryptograms can complete a puzzle yet be oblivious to the message in the sentence elucidated.
Once constituents have been identified and assigned values, the system uses relational databases and an ATN parser to complete the analysis. A database language is used to query the system for information pertinent to the research. Esling has found appropriate ways to utilise databases comprising inventories of sounds in a wide variety of languages. He makes use of the computer's ability to store large amounts of linguistic data for near-instantaneous random access and to order this data in various ways.
The key to Witton's programs is their refinement of what Hubbard calls 'anticipatory interaction', which, 'when done properly, ... can give students the ability to ask for and receive some of the same information they would in a face to face situation with teachers'. Accordingly, Witton's work essentially presents an expert system authoring package to allow students to gain greater insights into the linguistic features of German. Witton's program includes an authoring system that requires teachers to specify constituent elements of the anticipated response sentences, with which information the computer can work out alternate acceptable responses.