Download Computer Programming and Architecture. The VAX by Henry Levy, Richard Eckhouse PDF

By Henry Levy, Richard Eckhouse

Takes a distinct platforms method of programming and structure of the VAX

utilizing the VAX as an in depth instance, the 1st 1/2 this ebook deals an entire direction in meeting language programming. the second one describes higher-level platforms concerns in desktop structure. Highlights comprise the VAX assembler and debugger, different smooth architectures similar to RISCs, multiprocessing and parallel computing, microprogramming, caches and translation buffers, and an appendix at the Berkeley UNIX assembler.

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In the same way that we represent alphabetic letters by encoding them, we can also encode machine instructions. However, we would still refer to the machine instructions by their binary codes if it were not for the symbolic assembler that lets us use memory assisting names, or mnemonics, in place of the codes. A later chapter looks at the actual VAX encodings. For now, however, it is necessary only to understand the basic instructions in their symbolic form. Summary This chapter introduced the basic elements of the computer as seen by the assembly language programmer.

If an instruction is found, the assembler uses the symbol table to find the values of any symbolic operand specifiers. The instruction is then assembled into binary from the opcode and the specifiers, and is output to the object file. If a storage allocation declaration is found, the assembler outputs the initial values of the storage items to the object program. The Program Debugger Debugging assembly language programs can be difficult and frustrating. Of course, as in all programming, the most important step is preventing bugs through careful design and reasoning about your program.

More details can be found in the VAX/VMS Symbolic Debugger Reference Manual. While some programmers survive without using a debugger, learning to use a debugger can greatly increase your productivity. More important, a debugger provides an interactive environment that allows you to experiment with your program while you learn assembly language. Using the Debugger The debugger is a powerful program that allows you to interactively control the execution of your program. Some of the facilities provided by most debuggers include the following: • State examination and modification.

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