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By Paul M. Mather

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1971). Spectral libraries, accessible over the Internet from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (the ASTER Spectral Library and the US Geological Survey Digital Spectral Library), contain downloadable data derived from the studies of Hunt, Salisbury, and others. These studies demonstrate that rock-forming minerals have unique spectral reflectance curves. The presence of absorption features in these curves is diagnostic of the presence of certain mineral types. Some minerals, for example quartz and feldspars, do not have strong absorption features in the visible and near-infrared regions, but can be important as dilutants for minerals with strong spectral features such as the clay minerals, sulphates and carbonates.

The properties of specific sensors operating in each of these spectral regions are also described, and examples of typical applications are discussed. No attempt was made to provide full details of all planned, current and past platforms and sensors as that subject would require a book in itself that, furthermore, would be out of date before it was written. Examples of the most widely used satellite-borne imaging instruments, such as the HRV (carried by the SPOT satellite), TM/ETM+ (Landsat), ASTER (Terra), and SAR (RADARSAT and ERS-1/2) are used to illustrate those sections of this chapter that deal with instruments for remote sensing in the optical, near-infrared, thermal infrared and microwave wavebands.

Good introductions to geological remote sensing are Drury (1993), Goetz (1989) and Gupta (1991). 3 Water bodies The characteristic spectral reflectance curve for water shows a general reduction in reflectance with increasing wavelength, so that in the near infrared the reflectance of deep, clear water is virtually zero. However, the spectral reflectance of water is affected by the presence and concentration of dissolved and suspended organic and inorganic material, and by the depth of the water body.

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