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By Colleen A. Roach

By means of exploring the position of either tradition and the mass media, this quantity fills a niche within the literature on conflict and peace. amazing students supply an summary of severe mass media study and open up solely new views at the ongoing debate over communications concerns in struggle and peace. The contributions collect universal issues together with the military-industrial-communications advanced, cultural imperialism and transnational keep watch over of communications. a variety of views are coated, akin to gender matters, language learn and bureaucratization.

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Had this been counterbalanced by real-life scenes of death and destruction, its effect might not have been so mesmerizing. To quote Fore (1991): And what did the Gulf War sell? We were inundated with images of technology: powerful and exotic aircraft taking to the sky night after night; tanks speeding across the desert, stopping only to shoot at (and always hit) a distant target. ' . . The meaning? That this war was distant, remote and quite separate from our daily lives—which may have been why some people tried so hard to 'sell' the war to others, through yellow ribbons, bumper stickers, and even paid outdoor advertis­ ing.

In more recent times, the participation of American television in war has continued along lines very similar to those traced by Nelson. " The most awesome conversion of war into technological spec­ tacle was during the Gulf War of 1990-1991. From the earliest weeks in January 1991, when the bombs began to drop on Baghdad, television commentators giddily compared what they saw to Fourth of July fire­ works. Because the military censorship of the news media prevented the gathering of hard news, many of the networks entertained viewers with footage from Pentagon files, detailing the sophisticated weaponry being used by the allies.

32). The dialogue between cultures Galtung speaks of would have been very difficult for American journalists covering the Gulf War, since few if any spoke Arabic. According to a Freedom Forum survey of these journalists, designed to be "representative of the diverse media organi­ zations and individuals who covered the war," none of them were fluent in Arabic or even able to conduct an interview in the language. , 1991, pp. 26, 33). The failure of the American educational system in educating people about other cultures has been, since the late 1980s, the subject of a very contentious debate in the United States.

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