By Vladimir Shpilrain

the most function of this ebook is to teach how principles from combinatorial team concept have unfold to 2 different parts of arithmetic: the speculation of Lie algebras and affine algebraic geometry. a few of these principles, in flip, got here to combinatorial crew conception from low-dimensional topology at first of the twentieth Century.

This booklet is split into 3 particularly self sustaining components. half I offers a short exposition of a number of classical recommendations in combinatorial staff concept, specifically, equipment of Nielsen, Whitehead, and Tietze. half II includes the main target of the e-book. the following the authors express how the aforementioned suggestions of combinatorial team thought stumbled on their manner into affine algebraic geometry, a desirable sector of arithmetic that reviews polynomials and polynomial mappings. half III illustrates how principles from combinatorial staff thought contributed to the speculation of unfastened algebras. the point of interest this is on Schreier types of algebras (a number of algebras is related to be Schreier if any subalgebra of a loose algebra of this kind is loose within the related number of algebras).

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**Additional resources for Combinatorial Methods: Free Groups, Polynomials, and Free Algebras**

**Example text**

1. Choose some r E R, r fj. R'. Let u == raX (mod R') and v == rby (mod R') for some a, bE ZF (to be specified later). Then, modulo R', we have [raX, r b, yJ == [raX, yJ[raX, rbJY == [ra, yJx [x, yJ[x, rbJY == [x, yJ [ra, yJX[X'Y] [x, rbJY == [x, yJ [ra, yJy-1XY [x, rbJY == [x, yJ[y-l, raJXY[r b, X-I JXY == [x, yJr(a(l-y-1)+b(x-1-1»Xy. Thus, the congruence [raX, rbyJ == [x, yJ (mod R') is equivalent to the congruence r(a(l-y-1)+b(x-1-1» == 1 (mod R'). 1. Nielsen's Commutator Test 23 where a, b E ßF (since R ~ F' implies that ßR lies in ß}).

P(u) = w for some u E V(H). As in the statement ofthe theorem, V is the set oflaws defining the nontrivial variety B. 2. Almost Primitive and Generic Elements 43 of F. If w ~ K, then clearly w ~ V(K). If w E K, then since w is an APE, w is primitive in K since K is a proper subgroup of F. Furthermore, since Bis a nontrivial variety and K is free, we have that K =I- V(K). It follows then from the primitivity of w in K that w ~ V(K). Therefore w E V(F) and for any proper subgroup K of F we have w ~ V(K) and hence w is Bgeneric.

Test Elements in the free solvable group of any bigger rank as weH, but technicaHy it is getting more complicated. We also mention a related result of Timoshenko [382J, who proved that a free metabelian group of rank > 2 does not have any test elements. Now we get to the main results of this section. 1 ([147]). , Z(F/R) has no zero divisors and any two nonzero elements have a common nonzero multiple). Then there exist u,v E F such that [u,vJ == [x,yJ (modR'), while the endomorphism x -+ U, Y -+ v 01 F does not induce an automorphism 01 F/R'.