By Ming-ko Woo
Ming-ko Woo is Professor of Geography at McMaster college in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He serves on Editorial Board of the magazine Nordic Hydrology and as affiliate Editor for the journals Physical Geography and Geographie body et Quaternaire. also, he's the vice president of the foreign Geographical Union, Commission/Study workforce on Water Sustainability.
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Extra info for Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies. The Mackenzie GEWEX Experience: Volume 1: Atmospheric Dynamics
However, boreal forest canopies can intercept up to 60% of cumulative snowfall by midwinter and sublimation, notably of the intercepted snow, can remove 3045% of the annual snowfall (Pomeroy et al. 1999). For the MRB, Déry and Yau (2007) applied the PIEKTUK model with ERA-15 reanalysis data to show that surface and blowing snow sublimation deplete 29 mm of the annual precipitation. For comparison, the mean observed basin-average precipitation (Szeto et al. 2007a) for the snow season from November to March is about 115 mm while mean sublimation estimates for the corresponding period from the ERA-40 reanalysis is about 20 mm.
2007; Szeto 2007). In the warm season, the Basin receives moisture flux from the Pacific and the Arctic Oceans, and sometimes from the Gulf of Mexico also (Liu et al. 2007); the latter can bring extreme rainfall to the Basin (Brimelow and Reuter 2007). Moisture recycling is also pronounced (Szeto et al. 2007a) as the large areas of wetlands and lakes facilitate evaporation and the mountain slopes enhance precipitation of the atmospheric moisture. Within the Basin, there is a strong precipitation gradient, with annual precipitation exceeding 1000 mm in the mountains to the southwest and decreasing to less than 300 mm in the northeast.
2006, who The Mackenzie GEWEX Study 15 noted that streamflow response to large-scale climate forcing is complicated by topographic modification of local climate and by basin storage). 4 The Role of MAGS in International GEWEX Program In 1988, the World Climate Research Program initiated the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) to improve our understanding and prediction of the role played by the hydrologic cycle in the climate system. Several regional research programs covering a wide range of climatic conditions have been undertaken.