By Ming-ko Woo, Ming-ko Woo
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Additional resources for Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies
Both surface flow and subsurface flow in the organic layer can deliver water rapidly downslope and they are collectively termed quick flow. The mode of runoff includes the flow in rill and gullies, along soil pipes and within the matrix of the organic soil (Carey and Woo 2000). Flow in the mineral substrate, if present, tends to be orders of magnitude lower than in the organic layer. This subsurface flow is termed slow flow. Where thick organic soils are distinguishable into acrotelm and catotelm zones, quick flow is restricted to the top layer.
Proc. 11th Annual Scientific Meeting, Mackenzie GEWEX Study, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp 490-508 Hydrological Atlas of Canada (1978) Ministry of Supply and Services, Ottawa, Canada Janowicz JR, Gray DM, Pomeroy JW (1997) Snowmelt and runoff in a subarctic mountain basin. In: Milburn D (ed) Proc of the Hydro-ecology Workshop on the Arctic Environmental Strategy, Symposium No. 16, National Hydrology Research Institute, Saskatoon, pp 303320 Jumikis AR (1977) Thermal Geotechnics. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.
Investigations were carried out on four hillslopes and an upland site to emphasize two major landscapes: open woodland slopes and subalpine shrubland. In steep terrain at high latitudes, slope direction plays a major role in affecting the microclimate, as does the vegetation cover. On a long-term basis, vegetation growth, permafrost development and soil formation differ between elevations and among slopes. Shrubs dominate the subalpine zone and below it, spruce and aspen woodlands are common on north- and south-facing slopes, respectively.