By Andre Jungmittag, Guido Reger, Thomas Reiss
The internationalization of study and expertise is one key portion of the globalization of alternate and company, with almost certainly significant affects on styles of monetary improvement and public guidelines around the globe. even though yes features of this internationalization development are good documented, and a few results will be quantified, the general methods are tremendous complicated and the results are hugely doubtful. The lifestyles of the phenomenon is usually accredited, yet its value and the tendencies are presently the subject of a full of life debate. This examine on "New methods in Drug improvement in prescription drugs" is a part of a 3 12 months venture which goals at investigating how new techniques of business wisdom construction are carried out within the assorted environ ments of the innovation structures of the USA and Germany. the focus of the general venture is a sequence of case reports of innovation perform in numerous nationwide and sectoral contexts. the next sectors and technological fields are investigated: prescribed drugs and new methods in drug improvement by way of the Fraunhofer Institute for structures and Innovation examine (ISI), complex fabrics through the collage Hohenheim, Insti tute of foreign administration and Innovation (Alexander Gerybadze), monetary companies and residential banking via the Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology (MIT), middle for commercial functionality (Richard Lester) and the Sloan university of administration (Edward Roberts). Financially the undertaking used to be supported by way of the German-American educational Council, the German Federal Minstry of schooling, technological know-how learn and expertise and the Fraunhofer Society.
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At present, there are 16 Helmholtz Centers carrying out fundamental research in their specific fields. Centers focusing on medical research are the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), the Gesellschaft ftir biotechnologische Forschung (GBF) and the Max Delbrtick Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC). The former Blue List institutes, which were so called because the first list of their names was printed on blue paper, are now united in the Leibnitz Community. The federal government and the states pay equal shares of the budget of these independent research institutes with supra-regional importance and specific scientific interests (e.
Thus the OECD estimate of the world market volume for prescription-only products in 1995 was approximately 225 bn US $ (1992: 188 bn US $). 8 bn ECU). The differing estimates are quite compatible if the 16 % market share of OTC products in the six largest OECD countries is taken into account. 6% share of the world 28 3. Dynamics of the Markets and Market Structure European Pharmaceutical Market Global Pharmaceutical Market Lotm Rest Nonh 21\l' Asia. lnllio. (excl. 1. 6% (cf. 1). 5%). Due to a lack of consistent data it is also difficult to estimate the shares of the different categories of pharmaceuticals in the world market.
With respect to Blue List institutes and the government research institutes, only few institutes in this group have close relations with industry and perform technology transfer. German universities' major channels of technology transfer to industry are collaborative and contract research, consultation, informal contacts, conferences and provision of qualified personnel. In addition, scientific publications are intensively used. An effective transfer channel for German universities are external organizations like technology centers and particularly so-called Aninstitutes (institutes affiliated with a university).