By Balkiz Ozturk
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Extra info for Case, Referentiality and Phrase Structure (Linguistik Aktuell Linguistics Today, LA 77)
Ali köpek-ten kork-ar. ” The genitive case exhibits a similar pattern and interacts with referentiality as widely recognized in the literature (Sezer 1972, Hankamer and Knecht 1976, Knecht 1979, Nilsson 1986, Kornfilt 1999, 2003, Aygen 2002a, among others). As seen in (28), presence of genitive case causes a referential (definite) interpretation for the possessor. Its absence creates a non-referential reading and forms a compound: (28) a. Kalem-in kutu-su pencil-gen box-3ps “the box of the pencil” b.
Ali kitap okudu. Ali book read Kornfilt (1995, 2003), on the other hand, proposes a syntactic incorporation analysis for the data given in (37a)-(38a). However, unlike Knecht (1986), she claims that these nouns are marked for case and are embedded under a KP. Note that she also assumes that Turkish has a DP projection. In the case of incorporated NPs, she assumes the K head to be empty. Therefore, the N head moves into the empty K head position then moves and incorporates into V head, as shown in (52).
Ali book-acc read color-3ps red-past “Ali read the book. ” (non-referential) (referential) In the case of indefiniteness, which is expressed by means of the numeral bir “one”, again the presence or absence of accusative case creates a difference in terms of the interpretation of the noun. Presence of accusative case yields specific indefinites (Enç 1991): (26) a. Ali bir kitap okudu. ” b. Ali bir kitabokudu. ” (non-specific indefinite) (indefinite specific) Oblique cases also force strictly referential interpretation (Aygen 1999, 2002b, Kornfilt 2003).