Download Aspects of Homogeneous Catalysis: A Series of Advances by James E. Lyons (auth.), Renato Ugo (eds.) PDF

By James E. Lyons (auth.), Renato Ugo (eds.)

In contemporary years, the liquid section oxidation of natural substrates utilizing transition steel compounds as catalysts has turn into a ecocnomic technique of acquiring industrially vital chemical compounds. hundreds of thousands of a whole lot necessary petrochemicals are produced during this demeanour every year [1]. normal examples of such tactics are the construction of vinyl acetate or acetaldehyde through the Wacker approach, equations (1) and (2); the Mid­ Century method for the oxidation of methyl aromatics, comparable to p-xylene to tereph­ thalic acid, equation (3); and the creation of propylene oxide from propylene utilizing alkyl hydroperoxides, equation (4). PdCI , CuCI 2 2 (1) CH2 = CH2 + 0.5 O2 -H zero ~ CH3CHO 2 (2) Co(OAcjz ~ (3) (4) nearly all of liquid section transition steel catalyzed oxidations of natural compounds fall into those 3 wide different types: (a) unfastened radical autoxidation reactions, (b) reactions regarding nucleophilic assault on coordinated substrate reminiscent of the Wacker technique, or (c) steel catalyzed reactions of natural substrates with hydroperoxides. of those 3 periods of oxidations in basic terms the 1st represents the particular interplay of dioxygen with an natural substrate. The functionality of oxygen within the Wacker approach is just to re-oxidize the catalyst after each one cycle [2].

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CO d. CO2 e. (39) RCHO [86,87,88, 97, f. 101,102,103,10 4,105] R2CO g. CS2 h. 3PPh3 i. rCNE J. 25 All three metal complexes also react with NO, however, palladium and platinum dioxygen complexes give cis-di-nitrito complexes (38b) and (39b) while nickel has been reported to give a tetrahedral nitrosylnitrato complex, equation (37c). While platinum dioxygen has been reported to form a cyclic oxygen containing complex with tetracyanoethylene, equation (39j), a nickel dioxygen complex forms an olefm complex with expulsion of O2, Platinum complexes react with CO to form a cyclic carbonate, equation (39d), whereas a nickel peroxo complex gives CO 2 and a zero valent dicarbonyl complex, equation (37d).

Complexes of vanadium, molybdenum or titanium are capable of catalyzing the reaction of sulfides with alkylhydroperoxides [143145]. Although in the absence of a catalyst the hydroperoxide oxidation of a sulfide gives a sulfoxide, quantitative yields of sulfones can be obtained in the presence of some group V and VI metal complexes. tylacetonate produces phenylmethylsulfone in 98% yield. The selectivity of this reaction is shown by reaction 96 in which allyl n-butyl sulfide is oxidized to the sulfone without appreciable oxidation of the olefinic group [144, 145].

2. Catalytic reactions using hydroperoxides Although little work has appeared concerning the reaction of molecular oxygen with dialleyl sulfides catalyzed by metal complexes, the homogeneous catalytic oxidation of dialkylsulfides with hydroperoxides is accomplished with ease. Zirconium salts have been shown to catalyze the conversion of sulfides to sulfones using hydrogen peroxide [141,142]. Complexes of vanadium, molybdenum or titanium are capable of catalyzing the reaction of sulfides with alkylhydroperoxides [143145].

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