By Enam Al-Wer, Rudolf de Jong
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Additional resources for Arabic Dialectology: in Honour of Clive Holes on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday (Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics, V. 53)
2nd p. sing. masc. in the inflection of the perfect. Concomitantly, the rural and Bedouin /-tū/ morpheme of the 2nd p. plur. used in the adjacent areas replaced the qǝltu-type morpheme */-tum/. 6. Use of āni as the 1st p. , ǝḥna as the 1st p. plur. and ǝntu as the 2nd p. plur. Independent Personal Pronoun Instead of the qǝltu-Type Forms ana, nǝḥna and ǝntǝm Here MB follows the patterns commonly used in the Bedouin dialects of the Syrian-Mesopotamian group and the gǝlǝt dialects spoken in 10 JB has only one pattern, CaCaC, whereas CB has two, CaCaC and CiCiC, which are used also in the qǝltu dialects spoken in Anatolia, Mosul, Tikrīt, Dēr ez-Zōr, and Albū Kmāl (Blanc 1964:40; Johnstone 1975:92; Jastrow 1978:146-157; Behnstedt 1997:264-267; Abu-Haidar 1991:42-43).
Given the lack of any direct evidence for ð within the historical Aramaic era (beginning the tenth century bce), it can be concluded that Aramaic entered the historical era in stage 3 (Diagram 2), which is equally the endpoint of the split represented in (2) above. In the final analysis, the indeterminacy of the comparative method can be constrained by our considerations here, but the constraints are rather lax. If stage 2 in Diagram 2 occurred, it is inferred only indirectly. When stage 3 occurred is uncertain.
Indeterminacy and the comparative method 13 combines Driver’s variationist z ~ d stage, with contemporary Aramaicists’ derivation of all reflexes from ð. Our hypothetical example from Diagram 1 further allows us to clarify and criticize the reasoning behind the alleged development in (3) above. i. Let us assume a situation where stage 5 is now the contemporary stage and in this stage there is a one-to-one graphemic-phonemic mapping, hence “d” = d, “v” = v and “z” = z. ii. Further, assume that stage 5 reflexes lead to a reconstruction of *ð, from which all varieties attested in stage 5 derive.