By G. L. Wollam, R. W. Gifford Jr., R. C. Tarazi (auth.), R. N. Brogden (eds.)
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1975). , 1977). , 1977). , 1977). Following acute and chronic administration, prazosin lowers arterial pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac output is usually unchanged or slightly increased (Lund-Johansen, 1975). Because of the relaxant effect on venous capacitance vessels, prazosin may cause a reduction in venous return to the heart. , 1978). , 1977). , 1977). 2 Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of prazosin are not well understood. , 1976); however, its therapeutic action does not appear to be closely related with plasma levels (Collins and Pek, 1975).
2 Pharmacokinetics Systemic absorption of orally administered guanethidine is extremely variable among individuals and ranges between 3 and 27 % of the administered dose (McMartin and Simpson, 1971). However, for a given patient, gastrointestinal absorption appears to be relatively constant (McMartin and Simpson, 1971). , 1970). , 1975). , 1975) and approximately three half-lives (about IS days) are required to achieve steady state levels (Woosley and Nies, 1976). Guanethidine is excreted almost entirely by the kidney (McMartin and Simpson, 1971).
Spironolactone does not cause hyperglycaemia or hypercalcaemia and rarely produces hyperuricaemia; however, because of its steroidal activity, it may cause gynaecomastia, impotence and menometrorrhagia. It should be remembered that aspirin, in modest doses, can completely inhibit the effect of spironolactone on the distal tubule (Tweeddale and Ogilvie, 1973). Amiloride and triamterene, like spironolactone, are mild diuretic ~ents which act on the distal convoluted tubule. However, the ability of these drugs to diminish urinary potassium excretion is achieved by a direct action on the sodium-forpotassium exchange mechanism rather than by competitive antagonism of aldosterone.