By Jan W. Gooch
`...In end, this ebook should be a truly valuable resource of reference for the polymer analyst operating in academia or who has to characterise and deformulate quite a lot of polymer products.'
Polymer checking out, 18:231-232 (1999)
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Extra info for Analysis and Deformulation of Polymeric Materials: Paints, Plastics, Adhesives, and Inks
A spot analysis consists of an analysis for all detectable elements on one spot of a much larger specimen. This analysis may be representative of the entire specimen or it may be an analysis of an unusual region. 2. A distribution analysis determines the distribution of one or more elements as a function of position on the specimen. A distribution analysis is used to detect compositional gradients on a specimen surface; the average composition of the specimen is often known from a bulk analysis performed by other methods.
An experienced microscopist can identify many microscopic objects in the same way all of us identify macroscopic objects, that is, by shape, size, surface detail, color, luster, and the like. Descriptive terms (McCrone, 1974) found useful for surfaces include: angular, cemented, cracked, cratered, dimpled, laminar, orange-peel, pitted, porous, reticulated, smooth, striated, and valleyed. The nature of the surface helps to identify that substance. Measurements of reflectance on polished surfaces can be used to calculate the refractive indices of transparent substances and to give specific reflectance data for opaque substances.
In the wavelength diffractometer (WD) method, a crystal of a known spacing d separates X rays according to Bragg’s law, nλ = 2d sinθ, so that at a diffraction angle θ (collection of 2θ), X rays of specific wavelengths are detected. To cover the whole range, the diffractometers are usually equipped with many crystals. Even then, considerable time is needed to obtain an overall spectrum of all elements present. The resolution of the crystal in separating X rays of different wavelengths is very good (on the order of 10 eV), but the efficiency is very poor.