By Field R., Hook A.
The Mississippi River performed a decisive function within the American Civil warfare. The accomplice fortifications that managed the reduce Mississippi valley have been positioned to the try within the long Federal crusade of 1862-63. Vicksburg used to be a citadel urban, often called the "Gibraltar of the Confederacy," whose seize is frequently obvious because the key to victory within the battle. This publication explores the fortifications of the river valley, concentrating on Vicksburg and its defenses which boasted a community of forts, rifle pits, and cannon embrasures surrounding town and analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the fortifications while less than siege. additionally tested are a variety of different fortified strongholds, together with New Orleans, Port Hudson, New Madrid and, forts Henry and Donelson, all lavishly illustrated with complete colour art and cutaways.
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Extra info for American Civil War Fortifications (3). The Mississippi and River Forts
Six Mississippians working in a countermine were buried alive in the earth thrown up by the blast. Two more mines were completed and several others begun during the Siege. " In Grant's army, the digging and repair work was done by men of the pioneer companies of divisions, by details from troops manning the lines, or by free blacks. " Regarding the troops in the Federal trenches in front of the Railroad Redoubt, an officer of the 48th Ohio Infantry recalled: Our duty was to dig and man one of the rifle-pits, which was within one hundred yards of one of their main forts.
From mid-October 1862, Major General Ulysses S. Grant made several unsuccessful attempts to capture this river city, but Union efforts at Chickasaw Bluffs, and the Yazoo Pass and Steele's Bayou expeditions, came to nought. Thus, in the spring of 1863 Grant prepared to cross his troops from the west bank of the Mississippi River to a point south of Vicksburg, from where he would drive against the city from the south and east. Confederate interest in the defense of Vicksburg began much earlier than these events.
With a shortage of ammunition, the Confederates had to be economic with its use. According to Captain A. C. Roberts, 23rd Alabama Infantry, in the Square Fort: "The fire from our trenches upon the enemy was slow and deliberate. The sharpshooters Renowned as a "fine shot," Lieutenant Colonel William E. Strong, an officer of the 12th Wisconsin Infantry on the staff of General J. B. McPherson, ;s shown here among Federal sharpshooters in a rifle trench in the Vicksburg siege lines. Based on an original sketch by Theodore R.