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By Leo Young (Eds.)

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This system noise figure is significantly lower than could have been obtained with best crystal mixers. 5 db. A self-oscillating or "autodyne" converter with a gain of 1 db has been described by Sterzer et al. [58]. 5 db was measured [NFIF = 3 db]. , diodes for which L\r^C^>3). A severe drawback of these converters is that at high signal-power levels the self-öscillation frequency is pulled by the input signal, and the intermediate frequency is reduced. For example, in the autodyne converter described above, an input signal of - 4 0 dbm pulled the self-oscillating frequency by 1 Mc, and reduced the intermediate frequency from 30 to 29 Mc.

1) can be seen from the following. For a given Emvs product, that is, a given material, the maximum power that can be delivered to the carriers traversing the transistor is infinite. This obviously must be the case since we can in principle make our transistor as large (in cross 50 B. C. De Loach, Jr. section) as we please. Equation (1) also gives the obvious result of our infinite area device: Xc must go to zero. It then follows that when the "optimum" transistor has been fabricated, whether it is a single unit or a parallel combination of individual units, there will always be a trade between device impedance level and power output capability.

1) allows a prediction of the results attainable from higher-frequency transistors when and if they can be fT IN 6C l/2 FIG. 4. (PmXc) versus fti (fr) for existing transistors, including theoretical limit curves of Johnson and De Loach. fabricated, provided information is available on levels of Xc that can be accommodated in microwave circuitry. Figure 4 presents Johnson's equation (1) along with the best experimental results reported to date. The experimental P m values are taken from manufacturers' quoted maximum bias limits.

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