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By John G. Verkade

Figuring out molecular orbitals (MOs) is a prerequisite to appreciating many actual and chemical homes of topic. This broadly revised moment version of A Pictorial method of Molecular Bonding offers the author's cutting edge method of MOs, producing them pictorially for a wide selection of molecular geometries. an immense enhancement to the second one variation is the computer- and Macintosh-compatible Nodegame software program, that is coordinated with the textual content and aids in pictorially educating molecular orbital conception utilizing generator orbitals.

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It should be realized that molecular vibrations are independent of any translational or rotational motions of the molecules as a whole. What is the origin of the potential well for stable molecules? In the classical particle picture, electrons whirl around the two fixed nuclei just as they do around an atom at rest. For the purposes of this discussion let us make the simplifying assumption that the two nuclei are at rest separated by Ro. , kinetic plus potential) energy of all electronic motions plus the internuclear repulsion.

From now on, we will generally assume that the coordinates of the GOs are oriented so that the z axis lies along the internuclear axis. We will also frequently use a triangle to denote the GO center when that location is not obvious. It is clear that both the (2px) and (2py) GOs feel the same environment from the two nuclei but that the (2pz) GO must feel this environment differently since its lobes are directed toward the nuclei rather than being oriented in a plane perpendicular to the internuclear axis.

Corresponds to R:2: to about I O~4 cm. ) approach one another with a kinetic energy corresponding to U(Rd, they will decrease their relative velocity until at R! they are halted. However, they immediately fly apart again since the potential curve describing their interaction is overall repulsive. The curve in Figure 3. Diatomic Molecules 52 U(R) U(R) ~--~----------~---R (a) r---~'-'---'------------R (b) Figure 3-1. Potential energy [U(R)] as a function of distance (R) for a repulsive (a) and an attractive (b) interaction between two atoms.

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