By Zygmunt Frajzyngier
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed critical Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic procedure, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all practical domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is kind of diverse from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined to this point in either the formal capacity and the services which were grammaticalized. The grammar presents proofs for the postulated hypotheses relating varieties and services. The grammar is written in a method available to linguists operating inside various theoretical frameworks.
The phonology is characterised through a wealthy consonantal procedure, a 3 vowel procedure, and a tone approach. The language has plentiful vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord approach. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles permit the parsing of the clause into ingredients. The language has 3 different types of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The detrimental paradigms of verbs range from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.
The pronominal affixes and large method of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic family in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the thing. those arguments can stick with numerous parts. The grammatical position of that argument is coded via inflectional markers at the verb and such a lot curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical family members additional to verbs are assorted for various periods of verbs.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Wandala
These means depend on the inherent properties of verbs. The grammatical role of the nominal arguments that follow the question words is marked in the same way that all other morphemes mark grammatical roles: the root ending indicates that the following noun phrase is the object, and the root + a form indicates that the following noun phrase is the subject. The other means of coding content questions is through the use of various nouns together with the content interrogative marker rà. An outline of the grammar of Wandala 19 The tense and aspectual system in content questions is reduced, in that no reduplicated form of the verb can be used in content questions.
The family spoke Wandala at home. He was raised and educated in Mora, where he completed secondary school (lycée). During the time of the data-gathering he was a teacher in an Islamic elementary school. In addition to Wandala, he speaks Fula, French, and Kanuri. For several years, he served as co-host of a Wandala-language program at the radio station in Maroua. Hamidou Zake Umar, born around 1967, was at one time a student at the University of Yaoundé. Oumaté Mahamat was born in 1974 in Mora to Wandala parents.
27) ìr-ɬyà head-calm ‘grave’ The sequence bd has been recorded in word-medial position only in the proper name nábdə̀, a borrowing of Arabic Abdul, most probably via Fula. The underlying cluster mn is reduced to m by the rule n → Ø /m___: 38 Phonology (28) yòo, kínŋánà ám jínà yòo, kín ŋánà á-m njí nà well now DEF PRED-IN sitting DEM ‘Well, while sitting here . ’ The labial nasal is deleted after the alveolar nasal by the rule m → Ø /n___. Consider the verb mbà ‘learn to do something’ (ɓà in Mirt 1971: 5).