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By Jonathan Clements

'From the Fury of the Northmen carry us, O Lord'. among the 8th and 11th centuries, the Vikings surged from their Scandinavian native land to alternate, raid and invade alongside the coasts of Europe. Their impact and expeditions prolonged from Newfoundland to Baghdad, their battles have been as far-flung as Africa and the Arctic. yet have been they nice seafarers or determined outcasts, noble heathens or oafish pirates, the final pagans or the 1st of the fashionable Europeans? This concise research places medieval chronicles, Norse sagas and Muslim money owed along newer learn into ritual magic, genetic profiling and climatology. It contains biographical sketches of a few of the main well-known Vikings, from Erik Bloodaxe to Saint Olaf, and King Canute to Leif the fortunate. It explains why the Danish king Harald Bluetooth lent his identify to a twenty-first century instant expertise; which destiny saint laughed as she buried overseas ambassadors alive; why such a lot of Icelandic settlers had Irish names; and, how the final Viking colony was once destroyed via English raiders. Extending past the normal 'Viking age' of so much books, "A short background of the Vikings" areas surprising Scandinavian inhabitants stream in a much wider ancient context. It offers a balanced appraisal of those notorious sea kings, explaining either their quick enlargement and its intended halt. intended simply because, eventually, the Vikings didn't disappear: they become us.

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But Washington remained aloof. Business and banking interests insisted on maintaining this alignment of responsibilities, which had been in place under the Republican administrations that with few exceptions had been in power since the Civil War. ” But these governments were now as broke as the people who needed their help, and as the depression deepened they were unequal to the task. City tax collections had shrunk with the contraction of the economy. Many local governments were on the verge of bankruptcy.

Labor forecasters predicted that 13 million Americans would be out of work by winter. Even those who had work had too little of it. S. 1 percent of the steel it was capable of making—many employees were working two days a week or less and were paid accordingly, as was the case in Birmingham, Alabama. Even at plants that were relatively busy, a share-the-work movement, conceived of by Hoover and business leaders that August, promised added deprivation to workers who were lucky enough to still have jobs.

A FEVER OF PREPARATION 12. THE LAST HURRAH EPILOGUE: THE LEGACY OF THE WPA GLOSSARY SOME HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WPA A CHRONOLOGY: 1929–1946 BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ALSO BY NICK TAYLOR COPYRIGHT For Barbara PROLOGUE The human toll of the Great Depression of the 1930s is almost impossible for us to fathom. When Franklin D. Roosevelt took office as president of the United States in March 1933, as many as 15 million people—a quarter of the nation’s workers—had no jobs and no hope of finding one.

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